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The fictionalised accounts also name Zhuge Liang as a military commander in the combined forces, which is historically inaccurate (de Crespigny 1990:260–64). From Su's particular reminders of "living in fear of more troubles", and "by your love for me, you will hold this Ode in secrecy", although some scholars believe that the supplementations were actually written by his son Wen Peng (文彭). These include titles popular in Asia, such as the original Japanese version of Warriors of Fate and Dragon Throne: Battle of Red Cliffs. The borders of the land under Cao Cao's control contracted about 160 kilometres (99 mi), to the area around Xiangyang (de Crespigny 1990:291). Cultural festivals held by the city have dramatically increased tourism (Xinhua 1997). which likewise became popular among painters wishing to illustrate and celebrate Su Shi and Red Cliff. Heavy rains had made the road so treacherous that many of the sick soldiers had to carry bundles of grass on their backs and use them to fill the road to allow the horsemen to cross. [13] Citing several historical-geographical studies, Zhang (2006) shows that earlier accounts place the battlefield in Wuchang. Despite the strategic acumen Cao Cao had displayed in earlier campaigns and battles, in this case he had simply assumed that numerical superiority would eventually defeat the Sun and Liu navy. The modern-day debate is also complicated by the fact that the names of some of the key locations have changed over the following centuries. This metropolis was incorporated by joining three cities. The battle must also have been downstream (northeast) of that location (de Crespigny 1990:256–57; Zhang 2006:217). The start of the scroll is damaged and is missing 36 characters, It is out of all reason for Zhou Yu to take the credit for himself." Countless calligraphers also repeatedly transcribed Su’s two rhapsodies on Red Cliff, which likewise became popular among painters wishing to illustrate and celebrate Su Shi and Red Cliff. The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, gave them control of the Yangtze and provided a line of defence that was the basis for the later creation of the two southern states of Shu Han and Eastern Wu. The Battle of Red Cliffs and the capture of Jing Province by Liu Bei confirmed the separation of southern China from the northern heartland of the Yellow River valley and foreshadowed a north-south axis of hostility that would continue for centuries (de Crespigny 1990:260). One popular candidate for the battle site is Chibi Hill in Huangzhou, sometimes referred to as "Su Dongpo's Red Cliffs" or the "Literary Red Cliffs" (文赤壁). (See some of the related artworks.). Since the Yangtze flows roughly eastward towards the ocean (with northeast and southeast meanders), Red Cliffs must at least be west of Fankou, which is farther downstream. According to Zhang (2006), many of the current debates stem from the fact that the course and length of the Yangtze River between Wuli and Wuhan has changed since the Sui and Tang dynasties (Zhang 2006:225). A large number of men and horses either burned to death or drowned (Chen c. 280:54, 1262–63). Su Shi (蘇軾)’s First Ode on the Red Cliffs (Qian Chibifu 前赤壁賦) Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037 – 1101) was a great scholar and had a very unstable career as a government official. Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Red Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies utilised by his enemy during the battle: "... it was only because of the sickness that I burnt my ships and retreated. Historical accounts also establish east and west boundaries for a stretch of the Yangtze which encompasses all possible sites for the battlefield. The entire scroll is composed in regular script, the characters broad and tightly written, the brushstrokes full and smooth, Cao Cao then retreated north to his home base of Ye, leaving Cao Ren and Xu Huang to guard Jiangling, Yue Jin stationed in Xiangyang, and Man Chong in Dangyang (Chen c. 280). Cao Cao had chained his ships from stem to stern, possibly aiming to reduce seasickness in his navy, which was composed mostly of northerners who were not used to living on ships. that he learned from in his early years, and the more heavy simplicity in the style of The younger son prevailed, and Liu Biao's dispossessed eldest son, Liu Qi, departed to assume a commandery, Jiangxia (de Crespigny 1990:241).

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