Vertical lines represent one standard deviation. Further study of frog densities in secondary and non-native bamboo habitatsis needed to test these hypotheses. Distribution patterns of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in Denali National Park. Inother words,area of habitat within 50m of water : tran sec t length in habitat within 50m of watertotal area of habitat total length of tran sec t in habitatRiparian habitat yielded a habitat : transect water ratio of 1.00, secondary habitat yielded aratio of 0.70 and bamboo habitat yielded a ratio of 0.88 (Table 2). 24, RESULTS Inconsistencies in data collected at the start of the study period have led to theexclusion of several days of data from the final analysis. This lifestyle supports random and independent distribution of poisondart frogs throughout the Firestone Reserve. They also used a laser rangefinder (and later on, satellite imagery) to determine the size of the wetland (its dimensions), and they recorded water temperature, depth, and conductivity. ANOVA analysis indicated significant effects of habitats on densities forboth D. granuliferus and D. auratus (F = 20.31, df = 2, P < 0.0001; F = 28.62, df = 2, P <0.0001, respectively).Density (frogs/ha) 2.2 2 Secondary Bamboo 1.8 Habitat Type 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 RiparianFigure 8. Thisfinding provides an intriguing conclusion: that sunlight, or at least temperature, differenceswere not the main cause of distribution bias towards the riparian forest and away from thesecondary forest. data}]). (ix) Sighting conditions remain consistent during the study. Assumptions viii and xi were met by the study technique. A study on the vegetation species composition of 71 tropicalabandoned cattle pastures in Puerto Rico found that the density, basal area, abovegroundbiomass and species richness of the secondary forest sites matched old growth forest areasafter 40 years of regeneration (Aide et al., 2000). The tropical regions of this area have supported a highdiversity of amphibian species for millennia, leading the region to be classified as abiodiversity hotspot (Figure 1; Myers et al., 2000; Brooks et al., 2002). Average population densities of D. granuliferus (solid) and D. auratus (open) byhabitat. This mayhave been due to lower light penetration in the bamboo than the secondary forest, causingleaf litter to be moister and more highly preferred by poison dart frogs. The use of four maintained trailspermitted an accessible and repeatable loop through the forest and covered all three types ofhabitat. Most frogs and toads require a permanent watersource for reproduction, the development of young, and a source of food. Although more than one-fifth of CostaRican land is protected, it is clear that further action must be taken in order to raise, or atleast sustain, the current level of biodiversity (World Resources Institute, 2006). J. Herpetol. Top: Kyle Gustafson; bottom: Robert Newman. High activitylevels in D. pumilio, a species whose biology is often compared to D. granuliferus, werepreviously found to be limited to the morning between 8:00 and 9:00 (Graves, 1999). No large temperature differences were found between the riparian, secondary andbamboo habitats. Dendrobates granuliferus and D. auratus were selected as study subjects because oftheir relevance to amphibian declines and their conspicuous appearances in the field.Dendrobatids have many natural history characteristics typical of tropical amphibians.
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